Since 2014, together with his daughter Mayarí Rojas as Director of Production and Execution, Elmar Rojas' original graphic work project has begun as a result of the demand for his neverending search and experimentation of new materials and techniques in art. With the desire to achieve a new interpretation of his artwork, enriching traditional media and thus confer a new expressiveness to his pictorial work. His production of graphic work must be understood as part of his overall artistic production.
He has worked to the year 2017, four different collections made with high technical requirements, translating every pictorial detail into a world of new visual possibilities. Each of these systems has implicit different ways of thinking about the image. As a result, Elmar Rojas creates his own palette of technical options that decipher plastic values in reliefs, textures and colors.
What is an original graphic artwork?
Since 1960 at the III INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARTISTS held in Vienna, the principles relating to the original graphic work were established:
1) Original graphic works are those in which the artist has made the original plate, has carved the wooden block, or has created the artwork in any other material. Works that do not meet this essential requirement in which the artist participates directly should be considered reproductions.
2) To be recognized as original, each copy of the graphic artwork must bear the signature of the artist by hand, an indication of the total-number for the edition and the serial number of the same. For example, 28/75, exemplary item number twenty-eight of an edition of seventy-five copies. It may seem curious to emphasize "by hand"; is it there is another way to sign something? The answer is yes. There are engravings or serigraphs whose description indicates "signed on the plate". This means that the artist signed the plate or stone and therefore the signature was stamped, along with the transferred image on each of the copies of the print run. The artist does not sign the works done, but they can be numbered. In addition, it would be necessary to determine if it is an original edition made in the artist's lifetime or is an edition subsequent to the artist's death based on an existing work. All these factors directly influence the value of the graphic work and its qualification of graphic work or reproduction.
3) It is the exclusive right of the artist to establish the definitive number of each of his graphic works in different techniques.
4) Once the edition has been made, the plates, stones or wooden blocks used must be destroyed or marked with a characteristic signal indicating that the edition has been completed.
For the Graphic Artwork, the International Association of Painters, Engravers and Sculptors of UNESCO have required the following:
The artist's proofs must be limited to ten percent of the edition and bear the corresponding indication P. A. There are also state tests. These are made by the artist to see the evolution of the plate as if it were a sketch or a study of the final work. These are all different and they have P.E. I, P.E. II, P.E. III, etc. written on them. Another type of inscription that we find in the graphic work is H.C. or Hors Commerce, which is a test out of trade. They are made by the artist with the purpose of assigning them to organisms, institutions, gifts, etc. Despite not being created for commercial purposes, many of them end up on sale in galleries or auction houses.
As we can see, the original graphic work moves within a great rigor framework as well as strict control by the artists and publishers themselves, for obvious reasons they are interested in respecting and disseminating so that art collectors value the graphic artwork they are acquiring or owning.
Types of Engraving
Within what we call "graphic work" we find four large printing systems groups:
Embossed art prints
- Xilografía (madera al hilo), (gravure sur bois de fil, wood-cut, Holzschnitt).- Grabado al boj (madera de testa).(gravure sur bois de bour, wodengrabing, Holzstich).- Linograbado (gravure sur linoleum, lino-cut, Linolschnitt).
GRABADOS EN HUECO (INTAGLIO O TALLA DULCE)
- Buril (gravure au burin, engraving, Kupferstich).- Manera negra o media tinta (manière noiré, mezzontint, Schabkunst).- Punta seca (pointe-séche, dry point, Kaltnadel).- Aguafuerte (eau-forte, etching, Ätzradierung).- Aguatinta (aquatinte, aquatint, Aquatinta).- Barniz Blando (vernis mou, soft-ground etching, Weichgrundradierung).- Grabado en relieve
- Litografía (lithographie, lithography, Lithografie).
- Serigrafía (serigraphie, silk screen, Siebdruck).
As for the embossing, it is a process in which certain areas of the paper are highlighted. For this, the iron is subject to a corrosion by liquid acids with the intention of producing sufficient depth to create a relief on the support surface. In this case, the relief occurs at the same time as the inking, but it is also very common to emboss through the pressure of the plate without inking or even by incorporating wooden plates with reliefs on in order to produce a print on dry, which means to create a relief without the adhesion of inks.